Attorney Online

Attorney Online Development Blog

2.6.2 released

As the AO2 client reaches a turning point in its lifecycle, development has returned – at least for the time being.

New developers have arrived: @likeawindrammer, who revealed a serious bug in the client code; @cents02; and @vintprox. Other old faces are @Pyraqq, who is still too timid to make any changes; @stonedDiscord, who decided to take up some bug fixes for webAO; and @OmniTroid, who still pops in and out for random changes.

After months of testing with one server, the launcher has finally been uploaded to our host and will be placed on the website once a space has been carved out for it.

In other news, a full refactoring of AO is currently underway; it has reached about the 50% mark. While it will break all themes and introduce a new host of bugs, it will make AO2 significantly more maintainable, open to features, and better prepared for a third installment. Even after the rewrite, AO2 cannot become AO3 until compatibility has been completely broken.

I’d also like to apologize for having never really posted 2.6.1 on the website – the manual release process is a painstakingly long process, and I don’t like doing it. I will try to fix the automation for releases again – my fear is that it might take me another entire day.

On another note, I’ve also been dabbling with tighter Discord integration. After paying for a $25 “developer license,” I was automatically granted authority to place AO2 on the Discord Store, although with a “coming soon” tag. Unfortunately, I might never be able to officially list AO on the Discord store, due to copyright restrictions and the fact that a “free” price tag will not bring Discord revenue from transactions. If I could rebrand it as Animated Chatroom for legal purposes, and offload the distribution of Capcom’s content to other entities (using a legitimate asset system), then it would be a different story… unfortunately, neither AC nor an asset system are possible at this exact moment.

Well, one must live in the present, and the present is to carry on with the refactoring. All of the changes made to AO in the past eight months (save the 2.7 branch) have been released in 2.6.2, which squarely sets the future of AO to the refactored version. It would be extremely unfortunate if I did not finish this before the beginning of classes.


  • Fixed a security vulnerability; see GHSA-7fpc-9xpq-pxq7
  • Fonts can now be customized with the theme – simply use widget_font = font_name
  • Fixed a relative path bug with evidence
  • Discord and BASS are now optional dependencies for building AO. If you are interested in developing for AO, all you need to do is follow the standard Qt installation – you do not need to follow the Rite of Passage. (Building custom clients statically is no longer endorsed – it is extremely time-consuming, prone to breaking, and causes headaches even for the initiated.)

2.6 released

AO 2.6 has been released! This release adds new features to the official client, including guilty/not guilty buttons, the ability to pair up with a co-prosecutor or co-defense on the same bench, a markup language for modifying text color and speed, as well as a settings dialog. Here is a full list of additions:

  • Overhauled theme
  • Guilty/not guilty buttons
  • Area menu
  • Pairing – Two characters can occupy the same position simultaneously using the “Pair” button.
  • The in-character message log now scrolls down by default (for performance reasons).
  • Markup language for inline colors and text speed
  • Custom in-character names
  • Non-interrupting preanimations
  • Extended area support
  • Extended case announcement support
  • Mod call reason
  • Settings dialog
  • Variable log limits
  • APNG and Opus content support
  • Animated backgrounds support
  • Custom audio device selection
  • IC export using /save_chatlog
  • Seance and juror positions

Both full and update versions have been linked on the home page, and if you have the experimental launcher, you should have already received an update notification.

I’ll be working to get the Linux version up on the website and the official server updated as well (once activity dies down a bit). In the meantime, please report back with any bugs that you may find.

Server owners and theme authors will need to make changes to support the new features, although old servers and themes will still work as usual.


Master server updates

In a few hours, I will be performing maintenance to the master server to move the entire server list to an actual database. During the very brief maintenance period (perhaps a few seconds), all players and servers will lose connection with the master server. After the maintenance is complete, players and servers will then reconnect automatically.

Reasons for the upgrade

  • “Zombie” servers can be removed easily without any problems.
  • It also allows me to perform further maintenance without needing to disconnect all players (hotswap ability).

What you’ll notice

  • Commands have been removed from the master chat because nobody was using them. (There weren’t many to use, either.)
  • The server list will be jumbled up again, but it should have most of the same servers as before.
  • Servers will be ranked by player count, and offline servers are placed at the bottom. Uptime is also factored into the rank as usual. But if I suspect any foul play with the player counts, I can penalize the server by bumping it down. For the most part, though, the ranking is automatic except for the designated entry point for new players (the unofficial official AO server). Just ask me if you want your server to be at the top for a little while, for instance if you are doing some kind of community event or case.

What you won’t notice

  • AO1 clients will continue to be supported as they are. I’m skeptical that anyone still even uses 1.7.5, but the support is there if anyone wants to make a nostalgia server.

Action you need to take

You do not need to take any action. If your server does not appear in the list, try restarting, or ask me and I will make an entry for you.

The quest for WebM

AO2 only became what it became after getting away with using a label and a QMovie widget to play sprites. But it worked: it could play GIF animations without any pain.

GIF animations are easy enough. But for AC/AO3, I want to aim higher: play WebM files, specifically VP8 files. VP8 has much better compression than GIF and allows for 8-bit transparency, while GIF, that decades-old format whose palette issues get painted over with advanced dithering algorithms, only supports 1-bit transparency.

Here’s the problem, though: Virtually the only way to decode VP8, with alpha, is using an up-to-date version of libvpx, often contained in some larger AV library, which brings us to the one and only FFmpeg (or Libav if you are that kind of person).

If we use the Pyglet library, great, it does support FFmpeg decoding. But not so fast – it does not support FFmpeg decoding with alpha! After many hours of attempting to hack in support, I was unable to do so due to some segfault or another. It seems that any video file tainted with alpha will cause a segfault on /usr/lib/python3.6/lib-dynload/ Any other file, however, runs perfectly fine.

All right – let’s try plain old FFmpeg bindings. But the examples are made for Python 2, there is no Windows support, and the maintainer is fixing to leave. So, scratch that one.

What about just putting in a movie player – mpv? It works with one instance, but right when we put in the second instance, it falls apart because it is predominantly designed for one instance per process (in mpv’s case, we get a “double free or corruption” error if we try to initialize two instances with the OpenGL video output driver). If we force the libvpx library, which I believe contains the “reference” implementation of VP8, mpv/FFmpeg do actually attempt to decode the alpha, despite the furious rage by the mpv developer two years ago for FFmpeg supporting encoding, but not decoding, of VP8.

Finally, let’s examine how Ren’Py does it. Long story short, it does it using a rather convoluted native C interface that has various guards to work with mobile platforms as well. But it is so tied into the rest of Ren’Py and Screenlang that it would be impractical to extract it. It also includes audio components, but since I am going to use Qt anyway, I do not wish to use Ren’Py’s native audio interface.

This leaves me with no choice other than to write the core renderer in SDL using C and interface it with PyQt in some way, or abandon WebM due to lack of support.

The annoying part is that Pyglet’s FFmpeg decoder does work – this means that a chatroom that supports any sort of video is indeed something that is viable. However, videos that support alpha are not very well supported even in browsers or media players.

Despite its slightly higher convenience, APNG is just as nonstandard as WebM alpha, and most encoding implementations inefficiently stack frames next to each other instead of compressing blocks across frames, leading to greater file sizes compared to GIF. I do not wish to use APNG for this reason.

There are, of course, other obscure formats out there, such as MNG and FLIF, which remain so obscure that they have practically no encoding support.

The quest for a decent animation format continues. But for now, I will have to support only GIF and PNG until I can pin down what the best approach will be for decoding other formats.

Developing a deduplicative asset system

We have probably accomplished more in the past three days than I have been able to accomplish in the past month.

After an extended discussion, I decided to suspend work on Animated Chatroom to make way for an Electron-based Attorney Online 3 client, which would cut multiple layers of abstraction in that were present in Animated Chatroom and make it much easier to add features with less code, including WebM, Opus, and the network protocol.

While the others work on general client/server code, I’ve been tasked with developing a tool to convert AO-family assets to the AC/AO3 format, as well as managing the design of the new asset system.

Converting char.ini files to the info.json format is surprisingly tricky, even while closely following the specification as written by OmniTroid. Sound effects must be extracted from the base installation, and case sensitivity must be watched (some creators took the liberty to use capital letters in directories and shout sounds). What’s more, some obscure INI typos are detected by the converter, even though they may not have produced any error at all by any client.

(However, I have not yet addressed other extensions of the format that were addressed in AO2, especially animation timing. As it turns out, Blink and other web engines “round down” the GIF animation delays in order to maintain sync with the display’s refresh rate – that is, a .02 (1/50) second delay gets rounded down to 1/60 to achieve a smooth 60 fps animation, a “feature” which I do not believe Qt has added support for.)

At this point, it would be favorable to attempt conversion of GIFs to VP8 (WebM), which should greatly reduce the size of sprites while incurring a minor compression loss (chroma subsampling?), as well as converting uncompressed WAV to 48k or 64k Opus (which resamples the audio to 48 kHz, but not as if it wasn’t already mono 22.5 kHz to compensate for the size of WAV files). I will leave this format conversion for another day, though, since it incurs great risk.

After placing all of the asset files into the content.tar (alongside info.json), a checksum must be generated, which serves as the asset’s unique identifier. This unique identifier is then requested by clients during the automatic download process. The benefit to this design is that clashing is essentially impossible – that’s one problem down.

But we haven’t even gotten to the meat of it! To truly deduplicate asset data, a parent hierarchy is in place to allow one asset to be the derivative of another, only needing to package new data instead of both new and old data. In this way, characters can be updated seamlessly, even a trivial fix, without having to download the entire package anew. This is at the core of the system.

Indeed, this also means that assets imported from AO1 should also strive for deduplication. The only way to accomplish this is by establishing the AO Standard Base meta-asset, which would contain the generic sound effects and interjections shared by all AO1 characters. I would then incorporate the manifest of the standard base into the import script, allowing child assets to be generated without necessarily requiring a base folder.

The implications of this system are important to consider: first, it requires a degree of cooperation with asset makers, who need to understand the existence of a hierarchy, and, instead of fighting the system by attempting to create assets with no connection to their parents, simply embrace the decentralized nature of the system (without reinventing peer-to-peer file sharing). Second, the parent hierarchy makes it seem like a graph theory problem. Should child assets be only allowed one parent – or could there be a system where multiple parents are allowed? Third, this imposes monumental requirements on the side of the asset server to verify that two assets have not been duplicated with different hashes, and to perhaps visualize the relationships of assets.

As for decentralization, every asset server is a repository – essentially a glorified web server. Game servers suggest a list of asset servers by order of priority – ideally “official” repositories first (having the best bandwidth) and personal repositories last (having the worst bandwidth).

For those who cannot host full-fledged servers, but can use file hosting services such as Dropbox, I have also designed a “mini-repo” in which server owners need only host two links: an automatically-generated index of assets, and a large zip file containing all of the mini-repo’s assets. New assets (including updates) can be placed in a new repository. This design is not final yet, but I am sure it’ll prove to be convenient.

To be frank, I have never seen such a complicated system for assets in any other game, even after trying to simplify it as much as I could. (And if you got this far, what did you expect, it’s an engineering post.) But I’m willing to try this out – there are some clear advantages:

  • Assets are easy to download.
  • Assets are easy to modify without needing to tamper them.
  • Changes made to an asset do not affect the original asset.
  • There are many places where assets can be downloaded.
  • Assets cannot conflict with one another.

For now, I will continue to hack away at the conversion script until it becomes reliable enough to make full conversions of around 400 characters I have buried somewhere in my hard drive.

Let’s go!

We’ve decided to begin the year with a new website and blog! For a long time, we’ve wanted to write more about development progress, ideas, and events in a centralized place to save players from having to read the thousands of messages in our hectic Discord server. From Attorney Online’s long and contrived history, no news has always been the status quo – but evidently, the status quo has changed.

More specifically, what may you find in this blog in the not-so-distant future?

  • Important announcements, such as master server downtime or new versions
  • Software engineering and design articles related to the next installment of AO
  • Fun events! (maybe)
  • Our terrible procrastination habits
  • …and other interesting miscellany!

Along with the website and blog, we’ve also been trying to get webAO operational again. It’s not a drop-in replacement to desktop AO by any means, but it might work fine if you just want to try out the game without downloading all of the content.

As for Attorney Online 3, you might have heard deadlines of “the end of January” or “August.” I’d like to make it clear that due to my obligations in real life and university, I can’t make any promises regarding any sort of milestone date (or whether or not it will even be released or finished), and given the sheer immensity of the game I’m entasked to remake, there will be many bugs even after the game gets released. For now, the focus is on good design principles over churning out code quickly – otherwise, we’ll end up with the same mess we started with.

This December, from a freak change in the YouTube recommendations algorithm leading people to some nostalgic videos about AO, we received an influx of about 24,000 players, ballooning the Discord server from 600 members to just over 2,000 members! While the growth was not sustainable, the number should be enough to keep the AO community afloat with what we have right now.

That said, stay tuned for some smaller articles regarding the next steps for AO.

Keep on objectin’!